In 1660 a treaty was signed between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia. The treaty made peace which ended the Second Northern War that lasted from 1655-60, the war was primarily between the Swedish Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Brandenburg-Prussians aided teh Swedish and the Habsburg’s aided the Polish. The war wasn’t really won by any belligerent with multiple parties gaining from post war peace; Sweden gained Scania, Halland, Blekinge, Bohuslän and Ven, the Duchy of Prussia became a sovereign state, Sweden’s sovereignty in Swedish Livonia was accepted by Poland and New Sweden became part of the Netherlands.
The treaty of Oliva (Oliwa) was signed in Oliwa which was part of Royal Prussia. The treaty’s signatories were the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, Frederick William I of Brandenburg, John Casimir Vasa of Poland and Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie the head of the Swedish delegates who signed on be half of King Charles XI of Sweden who was still a minor. The treaty of Oliva was along with the Treaty of Copenhagen and the Treaty of Cardis a high point in the history of the Swedish Empire, this was a time when Sweden’s Empire was powerful and exerted influence in other European empires, coupled with the military power shown by Sweden. It shows a very different but still at this time significant European Empire from Sweden, largely forgotten in comparison with the world powers that the British, Spanish and French empires became.