On This Day: July 6th

On July 6th 1630 four thousand Swedish troops landed in Pomerania, Germany, this was part of the ongoing Thirty Years’ War. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers.

The belligerents were:

Anti-Habsburg States and Allies:
Sweden Sweden (from 1630)
Denmark Denmark (1625–1629)
 United Provinces
 France (from 1635)
Bohemia Bohemia (1618–1620)
 Saxony
The Palatinate (until 1623)
Brandenburg-Prussia
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
 England (1625–30)
 Scotland (1625–38)
Transylvania (from 1619)

Supported by:
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

Russian Tsardom

Habsburg States and Allies:
 Holy Roman Empire

  • Catholic League
  • Habsburg Monarchy Austria
  • Bohemia Bohemia (after 1620)

Spain Spanish Empire
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Hungary
 Kingdom of Croatia
Denmark Denmark (1643–1645)

Supported by:
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Zaporizhian Sich

The war ended with the Peace of Westphalia in May 1648, the conflict cost over 8,000,000 lives including civilian casualties. The results of the peace were:

  • Protestant princes allowed to continue religious practices
  • Decline of the Catholic Church
  • Habsburg supremacy curtailed
  • Recognition of the independence of the Dutch Republic by Spanish Empire
  • Recognition of the Spanish sovereignty of Southern Netherlands and Luxembourg by Dutch Republic
  • Rise of France and the Bourbon dynasty
  • Rise of the Swedish Empire
  • Decline of feudalism in continental Europe
  • Further decentralisation of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Franco-Spanish War until 1659
  • Devastation and major population loss in Imperial states

 

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